In the United States, second grade (called grade 2 in metric system countries) is a year of primary education. Second grade is the second school year after kindergarten. Students are traditionally 7–8 years old, depending on when their birthday occurs.
In mathematics, students are taught place value to hundreds or thousands, and renaming with addition and subtraction. Measurement is extended to the meter, foot, yard, kilogram, pound, and pint. Measurement of time and temperature in Fahrenheit and Celsius is also emphasized as well. Usually multiplication and division is introduced towards the end of the school year but not emphasized. Positive and negative numbers are introduced, but not added and subtracted. These values are generally introduced in temperature. Addition and subtraction facts are practiced throughout the year. Students also learn about plane and solid shapes in geometry and explore how they are apparent in our everyday lives. Some second grade topics in math can be explored at the following website.

In reading, students read to perform a task using fictional and non-fictional texts, and learn about story elements, text features, and character traits. In many counties and districts, schools have reading benchmarks that students need to meet by the end of each quarter and/or school year. Decoding strategies usually end in second grade and reading more for comprehension.
Students in second grade also learn the basics of grammar in writing, including subject, verbs, and adjectives. They also write to inform, to express personal ideas, and to persuade. Cursive writing is also focused in third grade.
Second grade science usually involvement of the basic earth and space sciences. Students are introduced to the planets and the weather system. Dinosaurs are also covered as well. Health science such as the human body is taught as well.
In social studies, a general understanding of the government and current events are discussed. Students are expected to know who the president and vice president, and some basic presidents such as Abraham Lincolm and George Washington. The concept of the law is taught in second grade. Second grade students may also get a basic understanding of history, and what life was like in times before they were born. Field trips to historical and science museums are common. Some basic sociological institutions are taught such as race and gender, and the exploration of different cultural groups such as Black, Latin, and Asian.
Although the U.S. does not formally have national grade standards, there are groups selected by the Department of Education to develop standards which are generally used by each State to set their own standards. For mathematics, it is the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. There is an English guide to the second grade maths standards and expectations.
It is traditionally the year that is dedicated to preparing for the child's "First Holy Communion", however, as Ireland becomes incresingly multicultural, more and more schools are opting to prepare for the sacrement outside of school hours - at weekends or after school.


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