Grades are standardized measurements of varying levels of comprehension within a subject area. Grades can be assigned in letters (for example, A, B, C, D, or F), as a range (for example 4.0–1.0), as descriptors (excellent, great, satisfactory, needs improvement), in percentages, or, as is common in some post-secondary institutions in some countries, as a Grade Point Average (GPA). The GPA can be used by potential employers or further post-secondary institutions to assess and compare applicants. A Cumulative Grade Point Average is a calculation of the average of all of a student's grades for all semesters and courses completed up to a given academic term, whereas the GPA may only refer to one term.

Keith Hoskin argues that the concept of grading students' work quantitatively was developed by a tutor named William Farish and first implemented by the University of Cambridge in 1792. Stray's article elucidates the complex relationship between the mode of examination (testing), in this case oral or written, and the varying philosophies of education these modes imply, both to teacher and student. As a technology, grading both shapes and reflects many fundamental areas of educational theory and practice.

In Indonesia, a grade point average ranging from 1 to 10 is used (Before KBK-Competency Based Curriculum was used):
• 10: Exceptional (highest grade; rarely given)
• 9-6: Passing (passing grades in all subjects)
• 5: Highest failing grade for certain subjects (such as Religious Education, Mother Tongue/Indonesian Language, and Moral Education)
• 4: Passing grade in some subjects, a failing grade in others
• 3: Highest failing grade in general
• 2: Failing grade
• 1: Failing grade (lowest possible grade)
After minister of education approved the use of Competency Based Curriculum in Indonesia, the grade point was made ranging from 0 to 100. However, the passing score differ between one subject and another.
• 100: Highest point (rarely given)
• 99-70: Passing score in all subjects (above average)
• 69-55: Pass or not differ from each subjects. Some subjects use a point between this range as a passing score. For example, in a subject student must get more than 69 to pass, while some subjects require students to have at least 56 (more than 55) to pass.
• <54: Student are considered failed and must re-exam with the highest score are the passing mark and not greater than that.
A student is to repeat a year if he or she earns a failing grade in any core subject (Mathematics, Indonesian Language, Religious Education, and some other subjects assigned by the student's major) or if the student fails in more than two non-core subjects.
Grading system for the university is, however, different. Grades are usually assigned in letters, following four-point system. Generally, Indonesian universities equate A with numerical value of 4.0 and E with 0.0. Some universities also employs intermediate grades such as A- and B+. This following list describes the common practice:
• A : 4
• A- : 3.67
• B+ : 3.33
• B : 3
• B- : 2.67
• C+ : 2.33
• C : 2
• C- : 1.67
• D+ : 1.33
The passing grade is usually C or 2 points. However, it should be noted that universities are basically free to (and hence, might) adopt different grading system. Such example is the Tenth of November Institute of Technology and Bandung Institute of Technology which, until recently, doesn't have any intermediate grades. Since 2009, it began to use half-grades AB (3.50), BC (2.50) and CD (1.5).

In India, grades are generally given in percentages to encourage perfection and good presentation, despite the extra pressure on the students. Schools also often give rankings in primary grade levels. In higher classes percentage differences up to two decimals are taken into consideration for ranking. The board exams given to students all over India in class 10 and 12 also affect the marks obtained in each subject in the report card. A percentage or GPA system is available to all institutes for post-secondary education, but is not universally used.
In secondary education schooling goes up to class 12, grades of 75.00% or higher indicate a high level of preparation and achievement for a student. For many undergraduate and graduate courses the threshold for high achievement rests at 60.00%. The Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) declares its results for each class based on Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) since 2010.
In 2009 a new method of evaluation known as the CCE scheme was introduced by the CBSE . According to CCE scheme which means 'continuous and comprehensive evaluation' of the central board of secondary education in India, students of 10th class will now not give the board exams and there will be grading system from A to E(A-1,A-2,B-1,B-2....). this system is also applicable for 9th standard. there is a difference of 9% between the grades—A-1 grade means the students has scored between 91% to 100%, A-2 means student has scored 81% to 90% and so on till E2 grade. CGPA is also given.The CGPA is the average of Grade Points obtained in all the subjects excluding additional 6th subject as per Scheme of Studies.
Higher Educational Institutions like Universities and Colleges have different levels of grading system depending on courses and type and nature of the courses undertaken.
In Iran schools, grades are based on 20. This system of grading based on 20 is also common in universities, but sometimes percent scoring is also used in higher educational systems.
However there's a variety of grading systems used. Some schools that offer the IB (International Baccalaureate) or even Lebanese Bac use the 0–100 scale, 60 being the average score. Some use the American system. However in the typical school offering a Lebanese system, getting high grades is very hard, because teachers do not use the full scale. For instance the highest score one can earn in essay writing in some schools is 14 out of 20. This weight is determined by the credit hours. For instance math (6hours/week) x 20 (the base grade) = 120 (weight) Example: Student's grades: (math 13.33/20, English 13.4/20, biology 16.2/20)
English: 5 credits x 13.4 = 67 out of possible 100
Math: 6 credits x 13.33 = 79.98 out of possible 120
Total points earned = 163.48 out of possible 260
Overall Average= 12.575 out of 20 (Considered a good average)

However in most universities the American grading system is used. Others use the 0–100 scale where the passing grade is 60 or 70 depending on the course. Yet French system universities use the 0–20 grading scale. Yet, a 40/100 in the American system is a 0/20 in the French system with respect to the following formula: (grade x 3) + 40 = (10 x 3)+40 = 70/100 is the 50/100 as the passing grade in the French system. Example: a 5/20 in the French system is equal to (5 x 3) + 40 = 55/100 in the American System. (Ref:ZE-2010)


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